The alternative to in vitro sensors that require the collection of blood samples and in vivo sensors that require implantation is the minimally invasive collection of biological fluids for in vitro sensing.
This is an area where the CBNS holds a considerable strategic advantage through the development of microprojection technology. A major step forward in this goal was reported in 2016 where the ability of the microprojections to induce circulating protein markers.
The important discovery in this paper was that in the process of applying the microprojection array patch, the pressure applied resulted in higher amounts of proteins being collected due to extravasation.
Additionally, in this paper, it was shown that the length of the microprojections can then allow different regions below the skin to be sampled. This is an important development in the pain-free collection of biomarkers for in vitro analysis with the next major step being relating the levels of the biomarkers collected to levels in the blood.
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